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Biomolecules and Polymers

Biomolecules and its types

Biomolecules are those inert molecules that are the real warriors in the struggle for the continuation of life. From microscopic macromolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids to large macromolecules like primary and secondary metabolites, hormones, and other macromolecules, they range in size. Lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates make up the four primary types of biomolecules. Below, we address each one individually.


Polyhydroxy aldehydes, ketones, or the products that are produced when they are hydrolyzed are carbohydrates. In everyday language, we call carbohydrates “sugars” or “sweet-tasting compounds.” They are referred to collectively as saccharides. The amount of constituent sugar units recovered following hydrolysis is used to categorize monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.


Approximately half of a cell’s dry weight is made up of proteins, which belong to another category of crucial macromolecules. Polypeptide chains consisting of amino acids arranged in a particular way make up proteins. Protein structures can occasionally be categorized as primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary.

Nucleic Acid

The genetic components called nucleic acids are present in all cells and are responsible for transmitting genetic information from one generation to the next. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are the two categories under which nucleic acids fall. The fundamental roles of nucleic acids are the transmission of genetic information and the synthesis of proteins, which are carried out by translation and transcription.


Lipids are chemical molecules that are linked to fatty acids, are soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water, and are utilized by living cells. They include lipids such as waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins, mono-, di-, or triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.

Polymers and Its types

The Greek term “polymer” implies “many components.” Almost every environment contains polymers. From polypropylene, which is used as plastic all over the world, to our DNA strand, which is a naturally occurring biopolymer. Polymers can be made artificially (synthetic polymers) or can be found naturally in plants and animals. Polymers have a wide range of physical and chemical properties that make them useful in daily life. Due to their complex structures, varied behaviors, and extensive variety of applications, polymers are challenging to classify.

Based on the source of availability

Natural-occurring polymers: Theycan be found in both plants and animals and are generated from nature.

Semi-synthetic polymers: They are created from naturally occurring polymers that have undergone chemical modification.

Synthetic polymers: These are polymers that have been created by humans.

Based on the monomer chain’s structure

Polymers with a linear structure: These are polymers that have lengthy, straight chains.

Polymers with Branched Chains: A polymer is categorized as having branched chains when its linear chains do so.

Cross-linked polymers: They are composed of monomers with dual and triple functionalities, respectively.

Types of Polymerization Reactions

Polymerization By Addition: Chain growth polymerization is another term for polymerization by addition. Massive polymers are created when small monomer units join together. With each step, the chain length increases.

Condensation Polymerization: Small molecules including H2O, CO, and NH3 are eliminated during this type of polymerization, which is known as condensation polymerization. This kind of polymerization process is most common in organic compounds with functional groups, such as diols, -dials, diamines, and dicarboxylic acids.

Conclusion In conclusion, the study of biomolecules and polymers is a fascinating field that holds immense significance in various scientific disciplines. Throughout this blog, Best NEET institute in Bangalore helped you in exploring the fundamental characteristics, functions, and applications of these complex macromolecules.Hyderabad & Bangalore NEET coaching centers guide students about important topics and make it easy for them to understand topics like this, so that they can give their best in NEET exams.