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Coordinate Compounds


The involvement of coordination molecules is critical. It is crucial to remember that life would not have been conceivable without hemoglobin and chlorophyll. The study of these compounds will increase our knowledge of chemical bonding and the physical traits of coordination compounds, such as their ability to attract.

Addition Compounds

The formation of crystals of new substances known as addition compounds occurs when a solution containing two or more simple stable chemicals in molecular proportions is left to mix.

Types of Molecular Compounds

Double Salt- A substance referred to as a “double salt” is produced when two distinct salts are mixed together. While it crystallizes as a single material, this compound ionizes as two distinct salts when it is dissolved in water. When dissolved in water, several salts, including Mohr’s salt and potash alum, undergo salt identity loss, which causes them to test positive for all of the salt’s ions.

Coordination Compounds- A ligand, a central atom, a complex ion, a cation, or an anion make up a coordination molecule. Normally, the ion appears outside of the complex ion.

Several Important Coordination Compounds Terms

Coordination Entity- A certain quantity of ions or molecules is bonded to the fixed center metal atom or ion.

Central Atom: In a specific geometric arrangement, the central cation is surrounded by and closely bonded by a few neutral molecules along with negatively charged ions.

Ligands- The primary atom or ion of the coordination entity is connected to ligands, which are ions or molecules.

Coordination Number- The coordination number of a metal atom or ion refers to the total number of ligand atoms that are directly connected to its core atom or ion by coordinate bonds. It is equivalent to secondary valency as well.

Coordination Sphere- A square bracket surrounds the ligands that are directly bound to the metal atom or ion at the center of the compound. The Coordination sphere, the first sphere of attraction, was so named. The metal ion’s coordination sphere tightly encloses the ligands, allowing them to work together as a single unit.

Coordination Polyhedron- A coordination polyhedron is the name given to the spatial configuration of the ligand atoms that are directly bound to the center atom or ion.

Warner’s Theory

  1. Primary Valency- The oxidation state of the core metal atom or ion determines its primary valency. These exhibit asymmetries.
  2. Secondary Valency- The quantity of ligand atoms coupled to the main metal atom is referred to as secondary valency. A complex ion has a certain form since they are directed.

Effective Atomic Number

The amount of electrons a metal atom or ion possesses after receiving them from the donor atoms of its ligands is known as the effective atomic number (EAN), which Sidgwick proposed. In some cases, the effective atomic number (EAN) and the atomic number of the nearby inert gas are the same.

Valence Bond Theory

The bulk of transition metal complexes have incomplete d orbitals, which allows the Valence Bond Theory (VBT) to explain the bonding in coordination compounds. As a result of the penultimate d-orbitals’ proximity to the s and p-orbitals of the outermost shell and the potential for different types of hybridization, the valence bond takes orbital hybridization into account.

Crystal Field Theory

The Valence Bond Theory is less well known than the Crystal Field Theory. It is believed that a complex’s ligands and core metal only interact electrostatically.

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