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P-Block Elements


P-block elements are those substances found in groups 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 (excluding helium) and in which the final electron resides in p-orbitals. P-block elements have been separated into six groups since p-block orbitals can hold a maximum of six electrons in total.

Each p-block element group is identified by its initial element. Group 13 is known as the Boron Family, Group 14 is known as the Carbon Family, Group 15 is known as the Nitrogen Family, Group 16 is known as the Oxygen Family, Group 17 is known as the Halogen or Fluorine Family, and Group 18 is known as the Noble Gas Family or Neon Family. Keep in mind that helium is not a p-block element, despite being a member of the noble gas family. One of the elements in the s-block is helium.

Some metals, all nonmetals, and metalloids are among these elements. Except for zero group elements, s-block and p-block elements are referred to as typical or representative elements. The 18th group of the periodic table (the zero group) represents the end of each era, i.e. a noble gas with a closed shell ns2np6 structure. Prior to the noble gas group, there are two chemically significant nonmetal groups. Halogens (group 17) and chalcogens (group 16) are examples.

P-Block element properties or characteristics

  • 1- The final electron reaches the p-subshell of the outermost shell in the atoms of the p-block elements.
  • These components gradually accumulate in the np subshell.
  • With the exception of helium, all p-block elements have an electrical configuration of ns2np1-6.
  • P-block elements have either 2 or 8 or 18 electrons in the penultimate shell.
  • The oxidation states of p-block elements range from +n to (n-8) where n is the number of electrons in the outermost shell, with the exception of F and inert gasses.
  • Every era sees an increase in oxidizing nature while reducing nature declines from left to right. Reduced nature becomes more prevalent in a group as it descends. Halogens are potent oxidizers.
  • Most p-block elements can be found as acidic oxides.
  • No salt or member of the p-block series gives the flame a distinctive color.
  • The allotropy phenomenon is demonstrated by a number of components of the p-block series. These elements include arsenic, carbon, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, boron, germanium, and silicon.
  • Numerous elements in the p-block series, including carbon, silicon, germanium, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and others, exhibit the catenation feature.

P-Block Elements Uses

  • The production of glass and pottery both uses the boron chemical known as borax.
  • Aluminum is used in foils to wrap objects, utensils, coils, wires, and the protection of iron and zinc. It serves as a reducing agent as well.
  • Additionally, the soap and detergent business uses boron.
  • Both aircraft and bulletproof armor uses boron.
  • Steel is hardened by adding an amount of boron.
  • As semiconductors, materials including gallium, germanium, arsenic, and silicon are used.
  • Fitkari is used as an antimicrobial and for the purification of water.
  • Disinfectants use chlorine as a component.
  • Multiple uses exist for carbon and its compounds.


The chemical elements are organized according to the periodic table. The p-block components are a crucial component of this table, therefore you should familiarize yourself with them. About 35 elements, including boron, germanium, silicon, etc., make up the p-block. So you can understand the periodic table better by learning about the p-block elements. Every student needs assistance in order to understand and learn these periodic table and its usage. DR ACademy the best institute for NEET preparation in Bangalore & Hyderabad assists students to strengthen their basics. Here at DR Academy NEET coaching in Bangalore we have a dedicated, highly qualified and experienced faculty to guide students at every step of their preparation.