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Alkyl Halide

Alkyl Halide

Alkyl Halide- Alkanes that include one or more halogens, commonly known as haloalkanes or alkyl halides, are the main source of these chemical compounds. Alkyl halides fall under the umbrella term of halocarbons. Alkyl halides, also known as haloalkanes, are created when halogen atoms—such as those from fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine—replace hydrogen atoms in an aliphatic hydrocarbon. Alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, and carboxylic acids are only a few examples of the organic precursors that can be used to make them. Alkyl halides often have hydrogen atoms bonded to the alkyl group’s sp3 hybridized carbon atom. The following are some different criteria that can be used to categorize alkyl halides.

Halogen Atom Count

Here, whether they have one, two, or more halogen atoms in their structure is the fundamental factor determining their classification. Under this heading, we have Mono Holakane, Dihaloakane, and Trihaloalkane.

The Halogen Atom’s Position Across the Carbon Atom Chain

The halogen atom’s position on the carbon atom chain determines the categorization.

Primary alkyl halide- The carbon that is connected to the halogen family in these haloalkanes will only be joined to one other alkyl group. No matter how strongly a large group is connected to it.


Secondary alkyl halide- The carbon atom that is connected to the halogen atom in this sort of haloalkane is joined directly to the other two alkyl groups, which may or may not be the same.


Tertiary alkyl halide- This particular class of haloalkanes has three alkyl groups directly linked to the carbon atom that bears the halogen element. This alkyl group may include both the same and distinct alkyl groups.

Alkyl Halide Properties- 

Alkyl halides have no color when they are present in their purest form. However, when bromides and iodides are exposed to light, they become colored. Many volatile halogen substances smell sweet. Solids or liquids are higher members. As the size and quantity of electrons rise, the attraction becomes stronger. As the mass of halogen atoms and the number of carbon atoms both rise, so does the density. Energy is needed to overcome the attraction between the haloalkane molecules and break the hydrogen bonds between the water molecules for haloalkanes in order to dissolve haloalkanes in water.


Chemical Reaction

Three different types of haloalkane chemical reactions exist:


Nucleophilic substitution reaction- A nucleophile combines with haloalkane in this kind of reaction, which has a partial positive charge on the carbon atom bound to the halogen. Following a substitution reaction, the leaving group halogen atom departs as a halide ion. The substitution process is known as a nucleophilic substitution reaction because a nucleophile started it.


Elimination Reaction- A hydrogen atom from the -carbon atom and a halogen atom from the -carbon atom will be eliminated when a haloalkane with a hydrogen atom is heated with an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide. As a result, one of the products is an alkene. Elimination is frequently referred to as an “elimination reaction” since the -hydrogen atom is engaged in the process.


Reactions with Metals- When certain metals are combined with the majority of organic chlorides, bromides, and iodides, compounds with carbon-metal bonds are produced. These substances are referred to as organometallic substances. Haloalkanes and magnesium metal are combined to create the product in dry ether.


Uses Of Alkyl Halide- In nature, halogen-containing organic molecules are abundant, and some of them have clinical use. These groups of substances have useful uses in both daily life and industry. They serve as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide variety of organic compounds as well as solvents for generally nonpolar molecules. Some completely fluorinated substances are thought to be possible blood substitutes in operations.


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