Post-Fertilization Changes in a Flower
The flower is a reproductive structure that helps angiosperm reproduction. The male half of the flower is represented by the androecium, and the female part of the flower’s body is represented by the gynoecium. These two components combine to generate their respective gametes.
Fertilization- Fertilization is simply the process of fusion of male and female gametes to give rise to a new embryo.
Gametes- Gametes are specialized cells that serve the function of reproduction. These cells can be found in species that engage in sexual reproduction. Gametes will be different in males and females. And sexual reproduction is where the gametes from both male and female individuals will unite to give a zygote.
Zygote- it is a single-cell structure formed from a fusion of male and female gametes. Eventually, this one cell will grow into an embryo. A formation that will eventually give rise to an organism is an embryo.
Fertilization process in plants- The pollination process has caused the pollen grains to safely land on the stigma. For fertilization to occur, the male gametes need to reach the lower part of the pistil, called an ovary, where the female gamete awaits it. The egg cell is present inside the ovary to form a zygote; the egg cell has to fuse with the male gamete. It is made possible by a structure called the pollen tube. This tube is formed from the pollen grain itself. The tube passes through the entire style before arriving at the ovary. The tube carries along the male gamete that is safely taken to the ovary. Once the gametes reach the ovary, the two-fuse gives rise to the formation of a single cell. This is the zygote that will further develop into an embryo. Zygote formation in plants marks the completion of fertilization.
Post-fertilization changes- After fertilization, the male reproductive parts of plants, such as stamens, sepals, and petals, wither and fall off. But in the female reproductive parts, after fertilization, the ovary develops into a fruit and ovules develop into seeds. An ovule is a part of the female reproductive system that will develop into seeds after fertilization. The ovule forms the seed which is nothing but a structure containing the embryo inside it, the baby plant! The embryo that is yet to develop means it needs utmost protection. That is why we have this seed. A seed remains safe and guarded by a seed coat which protects the inner delicate parts and the embryo during unfavorable conditions.
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