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Human Reproduction

Human Reproduction

Humans are viviparous, meaning they give birth to children. Human reproduction involves a series of processes. The process of creating sperm and eggs is known as gametogenesis. Transfer of male gametes to the female vaginal tract, fertilization, blastocyst, implantation, gestation, and parturition are all examples of insemination. The structure, function, and development of male and female reproductive organs differ.

Male Reproductive System- The male reproductive system comprises the testis, accessory ducts, accessory glands, and external genitalia (Penis). 

Testis- The testes are located in a pouch known as the Scrotum. Spermatogenesis is the formation of sperm in the testis, which requires 2-2.5 degrees Celsius less body temperature than normal body temperature, and the scrotum maintains a low temperature to generate spermatogenesis. The testis are densely coated. Testis can be 4-5 cm long and 2-3 cm wide. Each testis contains 250 Testicular- Lobules, each lobules contains 1-3 Seminiferous- Tubule, that is lined from inside by 2 types of cells- Male germ cell and Sertoli cells. 

Male Accessory Glands- Seminal vesicles (2), prostate (1), and Bulbourethral  (2) are the male accessory glands. Seminal vesicle secretion is rich in fructose, calcium, and other enzymes, while bulbourethral secretion aids in penis lubrication. 

Male External Genitalia (Penis)- It is made up of a type of tissue known as erectile. The glans-penis is an enlarged end of the penis that is covered by loose skin called the foreskin.

Female Reproductive System- Female reproductive system consists of Ovaries, Fallopian, Uterus, Cervix, Vagina and External Genitalia. 

Overy is a primary sex organ that produces ovum & ovarian hormones. It  can be 2-4 cm in length and connected to pelvic walls & uterus by ligament. In Fallopian tube, fimbriae collects ovum and travels to infundibulum, then ampulla (wider part) and then isthmus. Isthmus joins the uterus and travels to the cervix and at last in release through vagina.

Layer which undergoes cyclic changes during menstrual cycle called Endometrium and layer which exhibits strong contraction during childbirth called Myometrium. Female external genitalia consists of mons pubis (Cushion of fatty tissue), labia majora (Fleshy fold of tissue), labia minora (Paired fold of tissue), hymen and clitoris. Female reproductive parts along with a pair of mammary glands that are integrated structurally & Functionally to support ovulation, fertilization, pregnancy, birth and child care. Mammary glands consist of Glandular tissues that form milk and variable amounts of fat for support. 

Spermatogenesis- Formation of sperm is called spermatogenesis. If forms by following steps- Spermatogonia (Mitosis)

Primary Spermatocytes (Mitosis 1)

Secondary Spermatocytes (Mitosis 2)

Spermatids (Do not have tail)

Spermatozoa (Do have tail)

Process of making spermatids to spermatozoa is called spermiogenesis.  Release of the sperm from the seminiferous tubule is called spermiation.

When a human male ejaculates once, it releases 200-300 million of sperm/coitus. For a fertile human male should have at least 60% normal shape & size of sperm and at least 40% of vigorous motility. 

Oogenesis- It forms by following steps-

Oogonia (Mitosis)


Primary-Oocyte (arrested in prophase-1, until meiosis-1 completed prior to ovulation)


Secondary-Oocyte (arrested in metaphase- 2, meiosis completes at the time of fertilization)


Menarche is when first menstruation begins at puberty in females and Menopause is called when the menstruation cycle ceases around 50 years of age in females.

Fertilisation- When semen released by penis in vagina is called insemination. Matile sperm swims rapidly and reaches Ampulla of the fallopian tube through cervix and uterus ovum released by ovary also transported to Ampula for fertilisation. Fertilisation takes place only if both sperm and ovum simultaneously reach the Ampulla region. 

Human reproduction is an important but broad topic to study for NEET preparation. The best NEET coaching in Bangalore and Hyderabad provides students preparing for the NEET with comprehensive advice and notes to help them grasp the topics better.

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